This work presents the taxonomic study of Sapindaceae from three areas of montane forest remnants in southern Bahia, Brazil. Six genera and 21 species were registered. Paullinia (7 spp.) was the most diverse genus in number of species, followed by Cupania (5 spp.), Allophylus (4 spp.), Matayba and Serjania (2 spp. each) and Talisia (1 sp.). Four new occurrence records were registered (Allophylus leucoclados, A. petiolulatus, Cupania furfuracea and Matayba intermedia) for Northeast Brazil. Nine species were illustrated for the first time: Allophylus leucoclados, C. racemosa, C. rugosa, Cupania sp. 1, Paullinia ferruginea, P. micrantha, P. racemosa, P. revoluta and Serjania salzmanniana. This work includes an identification key, descriptions, illustrations, notes on phenology and comments on the taxonomy and geographic distribution of each species.